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Object类中的wait和notify使用总结
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Object类中的wait和notify使用总结

首先看一下官方文档

  1. void wait()
/**
     * Causes the current thread to wait until another thread invokes the
     * {@link java.lang.Object#notify()} method or the
     * {@link java.lang.Object#notifyAll()} method for this object.
     * In other words, this method behaves exactly as if it simply
     * performs the call {@code wait(0)}.
     * <p>
     * The current thread must own this object's monitor. The thread
     * releases ownership of this monitor and waits until another thread
     * notifies threads waiting on this object's monitor to wake up
     * either through a call to the {@code notify} method or the
     * {@code notifyAll} method. The thread then waits until it can
     * re-obtain ownership of the monitor and resumes execution.
     * <p>
     * As in the one argument version, interrupts and spurious wakeups are
     * possible, and this method should always be used in a loop:
     * <pre>
     *     synchronized (obj) {
     *         while (<condition does not hold>)
     *             obj.wait();
     *         ... // Perform action appropriate to condition
     *     }
     * </pre>
     * This method should only be called by a thread that is the owner
     * of this object's monitor. See the {@code notify} method for a
     * description of the ways in which a thread can become the owner of
     * a monitor.
     *
     * @throws  IllegalMonitorStateException  if the current thread is not
     *               the owner of the object's monitor.
     * @throws  InterruptedException if any thread interrupted the
     *             current thread before or while the current thread
     *             was waiting for a notification.  The <i>interrupted
     *             status</i> of the current thread is cleared when
     *             this exception is thrown.
     * @see        java.lang.Object#notify()
     * @see        java.lang.Object#notifyAll()
     */
    public final void wait() throws InterruptedException {
        wait(0);
    }

解析:根据英文文档可以看出来,wait()就是使当前线程等待,直到其它线程调用此对象的notify()方法或notifyAll方法
2. void notify()

/**
     * Wakes up a single thread that is waiting on this object's
     * monitor. If any threads are waiting on this object, one of them
     * is chosen to be awakened. The choice is arbitrary and occurs at
     * the discretion of the implementation. A thread waits on an object's
     * monitor by calling one of the {@code wait} methods.
     * <p>
     * The awakened thread will not be able to proceed until the current
     * thread relinquishes the lock on this object. The awakened thread will
     * compete in the usual manner with any other threads that might be
     * actively competing to synchronize on this object; for example, the
     * awakened thread enjoys no reliable privilege or disadvantage in being
     * the next thread to lock this object.
     * <p>
     * This method should only be called by a thread that is the owner
     * of this object's monitor. A thread becomes the owner of the
     * object's monitor in one of three ways:
     * <ul>
     * <li>By executing a synchronized instance method of that object.
     * <li>By executing the body of a {@code synchronized} statement
     *     that synchronizes on the object.
     * <li>For objects of type {@code Class,} by executing a
     *     synchronized static method of that class.
     * </ul>
     * <p>
     * Only one thread at a time can own an object's monitor.
     *
     * @throws  IllegalMonitorStateException  if the current thread is not
     *               the owner of this object's monitor.
     * @see        java.lang.Object#notifyAll()
     * @see        java.lang.Object#wait()
     */
    public final native void notify();

总这个里面,翻译过来就是说唤醒在这个对象监视器上等待的单个线程
3. void notifyAll()

/**
     * Wakes up all threads that are waiting on this object's monitor. A
     * thread waits on an object's monitor by calling one of the
     * {@code wait} methods.
     * <p>
     * The awakened threads will not be able to proceed until the current
     * thread relinquishes the lock on this object. The awakened threads
     * will compete in the usual manner with any other threads that might
     * be actively competing to synchronize on this object; for example,
     * the awakened threads enjoy no reliable privilege or disadvantage in
     * being the next thread to lock this object.
     * <p>
     * This method should only be called by a thread that is the owner
     * of this object's monitor. See the {@code notify} method for a
     * description of the ways in which a thread can become the owner of
     * a monitor.
     *
     * @throws  IllegalMonitorStateException  if the current thread is not
     *               the owner of this object's monitor.
     * @see        java.lang.Object#notify()
     * @see        java.lang.Object#wait()
     */
    public final native void notifyAll();

唤醒在此对象监视器上等待的所有线程
4. void wait(long timeout)

 /**
     * Causes the current thread to wait until either another thread invokes the
     * {@link java.lang.Object#notify()} method or the
     * {@link java.lang.Object#notifyAll()} method for this object, or a
     * specified amount of time has elapsed.
     * <p>
     * The current thread must own this object's monitor.
     * <p>
     * This method causes the current thread (call it <var>T</var>) to
     * place itself in the wait set for this object and then to relinquish
     * any and all synchronization claims on this object. Thread <var>T</var>
     * becomes disabled for thread scheduling purposes and lies dormant
     * until one of four things happens:
     * <ul>
     * <li>Some other thread invokes the {@code notify} method for this
     * object and thread <var>T</var> happens to be arbitrarily chosen as
     * the thread to be awakened.
     * <li>Some other thread invokes the {@code notifyAll} method for this
     * object.
     * <li>Some other thread {@linkplain Thread#interrupt() interrupts}
     * thread <var>T</var>.
     * <li>The specified amount of real time has elapsed, more or less.  If
     * {@code timeout} is zero, however, then real time is not taken into
     * consideration and the thread simply waits until notified.
     * </ul>
     * The thread <var>T</var> is then removed from the wait set for this
     * object and re-enabled for thread scheduling. It then competes in the
     * usual manner with other threads for the right to synchronize on the
     * object; once it has gained control of the object, all its
     * synchronization claims on the object are restored to the status quo
     * ante - that is, to the situation as of the time that the {@code wait}
     * method was invoked. Thread <var>T</var> then returns from the
     * invocation of the {@code wait} method. Thus, on return from the
     * {@code wait} method, the synchronization state of the object and of
     * thread {@code T} is exactly as it was when the {@code wait} method
     * was invoked.
     * <p>
     * A thread can also wake up without being notified, interrupted, or
     * timing out, a so-called <i>spurious wakeup</i>.  While this will rarely
     * occur in practice, applications must guard against it by testing for
     * the condition that should have caused the thread to be awakened, and
     * continuing to wait if the condition is not satisfied.  In other words,
     * waits should always occur in loops, like this one:
     * <pre>
     *     synchronized (obj) {
     *         while (<condition does not hold>)
     *             obj.wait(timeout);
     *         ... // Perform action appropriate to condition
     *     }
     * </pre>
     * (For more information on this topic, see Section 3.2.3 in Doug Lea's
     * "Concurrent Programming in Java (Second Edition)" (Addison-Wesley,
     * 2000), or Item 50 in Joshua Bloch's "Effective Java Programming
     * Language Guide" (Addison-Wesley, 2001).
     *
     * <p>If the current thread is {@linkplain java.lang.Thread#interrupt()
     * interrupted} by any thread before or while it is waiting, then an
     * {@code InterruptedException} is thrown.  This exception is not
     * thrown until the lock status of this object has been restored as
     * described above.
     *
     * <p>
     * Note that the {@code wait} method, as it places the current thread
     * into the wait set for this object, unlocks only this object; any
     * other objects on which the current thread may be synchronized remain
     * locked while the thread waits.
     * <p>
     * This method should only be called by a thread that is the owner
     * of this object's monitor. See the {@code notify} method for a
     * description of the ways in which a thread can become the owner of
     * a monitor.
     *
     * @param      timeout   the maximum time to wait in milliseconds.
     * @throws  IllegalArgumentException      if the value of timeout is
     *               negative.
     * @throws  IllegalMonitorStateException  if the current thread is not
     *               the owner of the object's monitor.
     * @throws  InterruptedException if any thread interrupted the
     *             current thread before or while the current thread
     *             was waiting for a notification.  The <i>interrupted
     *             status</i> of the current thread is cleared when
     *             this exception is thrown.
     * @see        java.lang.Object#notify()
     * @see        java.lang.Object#notifyAll()
     */
    public final native void wait(long timeout) throws InterruptedException;

导致当前的线程等待,直到其他线程调用此对象的notify() 方法或 notifyAll() 方法,或者指定的时间过完。
5. void wait(long timeout, int nanos)

/**
     * Causes the current thread to wait until another thread invokes the
     * {@link java.lang.Object#notify()} method or the
     * {@link java.lang.Object#notifyAll()} method for this object, or
     * some other thread interrupts the current thread, or a certain
     * amount of real time has elapsed.
     * <p>
     * This method is similar to the {@code wait} method of one
     * argument, but it allows finer control over the amount of time to
     * wait for a notification before giving up. The amount of real time,
     * measured in nanoseconds, is given by:
     * <blockquote>
     * <pre>
     * 1000000*timeout+nanos</pre></blockquote>
     * <p>
     * In all other respects, this method does the same thing as the
     * method {@link #wait(long)} of one argument. In particular,
     * {@code wait(0, 0)} means the same thing as {@code wait(0)}.
     * <p>
     * The current thread must own this object's monitor. The thread
     * releases ownership of this monitor and waits until either of the
     * following two conditions has occurred:
     * <ul>
     * <li>Another thread notifies threads waiting on this object's monitor
     *     to wake up either through a call to the {@code notify} method
     *     or the {@code notifyAll} method.
     * <li>The timeout period, specified by {@code timeout}
     *     milliseconds plus {@code nanos} nanoseconds arguments, has
     *     elapsed.
     * </ul>
     * <p>
     * The thread then waits until it can re-obtain ownership of the
     * monitor and resumes execution.
     * <p>
     * As in the one argument version, interrupts and spurious wakeups are
     * possible, and this method should always be used in a loop:
     * <pre>
     *     synchronized (obj) {
     *         while (<condition does not hold>)
     *             obj.wait(timeout, nanos);
     *         ... // Perform action appropriate to condition
     *     }
     * </pre>
     * This method should only be called by a thread that is the owner
     * of this object's monitor. See the {@code notify} method for a
     * description of the ways in which a thread can become the owner of
     * a monitor.
     *
     * @param      timeout   the maximum time to wait in milliseconds.
     * @param      nanos      additional time, in nanoseconds range
     *                       0-999999.
     * @throws  IllegalArgumentException      if the value of timeout is
     *                      negative or the value of nanos is
     *                      not in the range 0-999999.
     * @throws  IllegalMonitorStateException  if the current thread is not
     *               the owner of this object's monitor.
     * @throws  InterruptedException if any thread interrupted the
     *             current thread before or while the current thread
     *             was waiting for a notification.  The <i>interrupted
     *             status</i> of the current thread is cleared when
     *             this exception is thrown.
     */
    public final void wait(long timeout, int nanos) throws InterruptedException {
        if (timeout < 0) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("timeout value is negative");
        }

        if (nanos < 0 || nanos > 999999) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException(
                                "nanosecond timeout value out of range");
        }

        if (nanos > 0) {
            timeout++;
        }

        wait(timeout);
    }

导致当前的线程等待,直到其他线程调用此对象的notify( ) 方法或 notifyAll( ) 方法,或者其他线程打断了当前线程,或者指定的时间过完

个人总结

  • wait( ),notify( ),notifyAll( )都不属于Thread类,而是属于Object基础类,也就是每个对象都有wait( ),notify( ),notifyAll( ) 的功能,因为每个对象都有锁,锁是每个对象的基础,当然操作锁的方法也是最基础了。

  • 当需要调用以上的方法的时候,一定要对竞争资源进行加锁,如果不加锁的话,则会报 IllegalMonitorStateException 异常

  • 当想要调用wait( )进行线程等待时,必须要取得这个锁对象的控制权(对象监视器),一般是放到synchronized(obj)代码中。

  • 在while循环里而不是if语句下使用wait,这样,会在线程暂停恢复后都检查wait的条件,并在条件实际上并未改变的情况下处理唤醒通知

  • 调用obj.wait( )释放了obj的锁,否则其他线程也无法获得obj的锁,也就无法在synchronized(obj){ obj.notify() } 代码段内唤醒A。

  • notify( )方法只会通知等待队列中的第一个相关线程(不会通知优先级比较高的线程)

  • notifyAll( )通知所有等待该竞争资源的线程(也不会按照线程的优先级来执行)

  • 假设有三个线程执行了obj.wait( ),那么obj.notifyAll( )则能全部唤醒tread1,thread2,thread3,但是要继续执行obj.wait()的下一条语句,必须获得obj锁,因此,tread1,thread2,thread3只有一个有机会获得锁继续执行,例如tread1,其余的需要等待thread1释放obj锁之后才能继续执行。

  • 当调用obj.notify/notifyAll后,调用线程依旧持有obj锁,因此,thread1,thread2,thread3虽被唤醒,但是仍无法获得obj锁。直到调用线程退出synchronized块,释放obj锁后,thread1,thread2,thread3中的一个才有机会获得锁继续执行。

举例说明

利用wait和notify模拟一个游戏等待的功能。

import java.util.Random;

/**
 * 
 * 模拟一下英雄联盟的游戏等待界面
 * @author xuxinwei 2019年9月3日
 */
public class TestWait implements Runnable{
	private int count;//就绪玩家数量
	private Random rand = new Random();//第一一个随机数,模拟一下玩家选取英雄花费的时间
	@Override
	public void run() {
		synchronized (this) {//线程需要加锁,防止出现
			int time = rand.nextInt(5);
			try {
				Thread.sleep(time*1000);//选取英雄
			} catch (Exception e) {
				e.printStackTrace();
			}
			count++;//玩家数量,玩家选择好之后就加一个
			if (count<5) {
				try {
					System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName()+"就绪");
					this.wait();//该线程进行等待
				} catch (Exception e) {
					e.printStackTrace();
				}
			}else {
				if (count==5) {
					System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName()+"就绪");
					System.out.println("全体玩家就绪,10秒后开始游戏");
				}
				for (int i = 10; i>0; i--) {
					System.out.println("倒计时"+i+"秒");
					try {
						Thread.sleep(1000);
					} catch (InterruptedException e) {
						// TODO Auto-generated catch block
						e.printStackTrace();
					}
				}
				this.notifyAll();//将所有的线程释放
			}
			System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName()+"开始游戏");
		}
	}
	public static void main(String[] args) {
		TestWait testWait = new TestWait();
		Thread a = new Thread(testWait,"无双剑姬");
		Thread b = new Thread(testWait,"疾风剑豪");
		Thread c = new Thread(testWait,"嘉文四世");
		Thread d = new Thread(testWait,"伊泽瑞尔");
		Thread e = new Thread(testWait,"风暴之怒");
		a.start();
		b.start();
		c.start();
		d.start();
		e.start();
		
	}
}


标题:Object类中的wait和notify使用总结
作者:XxwGit
地址:http://xxwgit.cn/solo/articles/2019/09/03/1567472464713.html

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